Dissenting opinions: according to Justice Blackmun, some conditions in the prisons were so grave that they could not be ignored and therefore where a prisoner had escaped and later o after being arrested and tried he pleads the defence of necessity or duress it is the courts duty and that of the jury to look into the essential elements of the two defences and make a ruling (Findlaw.com, 2011)

Dissenting opinions: according to Justice Blackmun, some conditions in the prisons were so grave that they could not be ignored and therefore where a prisoner had escaped and later o after being arrested and tried he pleads the defence of necessity or duress it is the courts duty and that of the jury to look into the essential elements of the two defences and make a ruling (Findlaw.com, 2011)

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    3) The third alternative is price increase by 5% only for blue bags in all stores. Two states of nature are possible: no merchandising loss with 50% probability, and 7% merchandize loss with 50% probability. With the use of data from Exhibit 10, the expected values for all states of nature for sales and profit is calculated.

    Total expected value for sales = (-$3,020) million

    Total expected value for profit = $475 million

    4) The fourth alternative is a price increase by 5% for all products in all stores. Two states of nature are possible: no merchandising loss with 30% probability, and a merchandize loss with 70% probability. With the use of data from Exhibit 10, the expected values for all states of nature for sales and profit is calculated.

    Total expected value for sales = (-$3,660) million

    Total expected value for profit = $1,765 million

    As it can be seen, expected values are completely different. However, with the growing decrease in sales, profit is increasing. It happens because lower volume of sold products is covered by their higher prices.

    Four alternatives were studied, therefore the values for each were calculated. The best approach is the fourth one. Therefore, Kingsford Charcoal should choose the fourth alternative. Although it will decrease its sales volume, profit will grow. Additional money received from increased profit can be used to promote and advertise products in the next period, therefore the company will be able to increase sales again.

    Plan Development

    In order to implement the fourth alternative, the company should develop a specific plan. It should involve all four elements of marketing mix.

    Charcoal products offered by Kingsford Charcoal may not be modified. The company can continue producing and selling the same products.

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    According to the expected values additionally the alternatives, it would be better to increase price for all products by 5%. It will help to increase total profit. This rise is slight and not felt by most consumers. The volume of products sold will undoubtedly be lower; however, once the prices are higher, total profit will grow.

    Kingsford Charcoal sells its products in club stores, retail chains, supermarkets, drug stores, and other types of stores. Therefore, the company cannot choose many additional places for selling its products. The only wise decision there will likely to be to change placement of products in order to make them more visible for customers in comparison with competitors’ products.

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    Rationale: the fourteenth amendment prohibits a state from criminalizing peaceful expressions of unpopular views. Freedom of speech does possess the qualities of being provocative, inviting dispute and causing arrest and thus it is protected under the laws unless it causes danger to the public and in this case, it was exercise with utmost respect and did not provoke public unrest or dispute (Edelman, 1984).

    Dissenting opinions: according to Justice Clark in his dissent, the evidence of the city manager alleged that the protest had caused an interference with traffic and threatened the peace of the community and as such that construes a breach of the peace. The police officials acted in good faith as they apprehended the protesters since they suspected there would be imminent danger if the protests continued (Edelman, 1984).

    Adderley v. Florida, 385 U.S. 39 (1966)

    Facts; Harriet Louise Adderley and a group of students held a protest outside a non-public jail driveway opposing the arrest and segregation of their fellow students.  The sheriff who was also the jail custodian ordered them to disperse as they were trespassing but they refused to disperse. They were arrested and charged with trespass with a malicious and mischievous intent. The protest concerned the states policies of racial segregation which extended even to jails (Findlaw.com, 2011).

    Issues present: the petitioners claimed that their constitutional rights of free speech, assembly, and petition as guaranteed under the first and fourteenth amendments had been infringed. There was lack of relevant evidence illustrating the infringement of rights of the petitioners. They also argued that the doctrine of abatement protected them (Findlaw.com, 2011).

    Decisions: the court held that the petitioners were guilty of trespass once the property belonged to the county and therefore the arrest was as a result of the trespass and not the protest therefore the views they held. Therefore the state had not infringed the petitioners’ right and more so, the jails were for security purposes and not public property thus they were guilty of trespass (Scheb et al. 2007). The doctrine of abatement was not applicable as trespass on jail grounds was unlawful since they do not fall under the definition of places of public accommodation. Rationale: though the rights of free speech and assembly are protected by the law, they are subject to exceptions and these include the maintenance of public order therefore the security of the community at large (Scheb et al. 2007). Therefore the students posed a threat by demonstrating in jail grounds and further trespassed on private property, an issue which not even their constitutional right to liberty would protect them from (Findlaw.com, 2011).

    Dissenting opinions: the Justices who dissented held that the charge of trespass was being used as a way of penalizing the exercise of a constitutional right and the argument that the arrest was conducted for reasons of trespass and not the protest was an excuse being used to silence the abuse of their rights. Further the issue of public/private property could not be used to curtail the constitutional rights provided for under the first and fourteenth amendments (Edelman, 1984).

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    U.S. v. Wise, 221 F.3d 140 (5th Cir. 2000)

    Facts: the defendants sent threatening emails to the federal government offices stating that they would use biological methods to attack unless their demands were met. The search conducted at their homes revealed evidence of their plan to attack (Findlaw.com, 2011).

    Decision; the court ruled that they were guilty of the crime as they were not induced into its commission and furthermore there was evidence indicating their intent to commit the crime (Scheb et al. 2007).

    Rationale: the intention of the defendants was all that needed to be proved in court therefore the fact that they even had drafted plans of the attack meant they had the mensrea to commit the crime (Findlaw.com, 2011).

    Dissenting decision: there was no dissenting decision (Findlaw.com 2011).

    U.S. v. Bailey, 444 U.S. 394 (1980)

    Facts: the respondents escaped from the District of Columbia jail and they asserted that their reasons for doing so were the harsh jail conditions therefore the death threats they received (Findlaw.com, 2011).

    Issues present: the query related to the initial departure of the respondents and if their escape was a continuing offence. Additionally could the respondents successfully claim the defences of duress and necessity as a result of the jail conditions? (Findlaw.com, 2011).

    Decisions: escaping from federal custody could be construed as a continuing offence and therefore the respondents were guilty of the same. The court had to establish that the respondents had the mensrea therefore the intent to escape and they were found guilty (Findlaw.com, 2011).

    Rationale: the court was of the opinion that the fact that the respondents had escaped, without permission meant that no amount of harsh conditions would justify their actions and they were therefore guilty (Findlaw.com, 2011).

    Dissenting opinions: according to Justice Blackmun, some conditions in the prisons were so grave that they could not be ignored and therefore where a prisoner had escaped and later o after being arrested and tried he pleads the defence of necessity or duress it is the courts duty and that of the jury to look into the essential elements of the two defences and make a ruling (Findlaw.com, 2011).

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    Disorderly conduct is a statutory crime which is broader in scope than breach of peace. There is no precise way of defining it as it varies in every jurisdiction but it basically revolves around disturbing the peace, security, morals, or health of a society. Equally any behaviour that results in disturbance of members of society can be considered as disorderly conduct (Edelman, 1984).

    The protest of one group was upheld while the other was not due to the different circumstances that involved the case. According to Scheb et al. (2007), in the Edwards case there was direct infringement of their constitutional rights therefore the protest was undertaken peacefully and in public property while in the Adderley case, trespass was committed in private property thus their rights could not be asserted. The Adderley case contains an offence committed by the protesters an element which is lacking in the Edwards case (Scheb et al. 2007).

    Will the government be successful and obtain a conviction?

    The government will not succeed in convicting the students since there is no evidence indicating the students actually had the means of committing the crime. The absence of such evidence will then shift the burden of proof to the government an onus which will be hard without any form of evidence (Scheb et al. 2007). As in the case of U.S v Wise, there is need for evidence even in the form of documents or electronic sources that illustrate the intent to commit the crime but in this case, they are deficient. Therefore since the evidence against the students is wanting, the government may fail in obtaining a conviction (Scheb et al. 2007).

    What charges can be brought against inmate Grady?

    The provisions of 18 U.S.C. 751 (a) prohibit the escape from federal prison of any inmates and under 751(a), if there is proof that the inmate was aware of his intention to leave custody then he his guilty of the charges of leaving custody with the intent of avoiding confinement. Escape from federal custody as defined in 751 (a) is a continuing offence, and an escapee can be held liable for failure to custody as well as for his initial departure as held in the case of U.S v Bailey, where one of the respondents tried to communicate to the prison officials through telephone but in this case, since Grady did not attempt any form of communication after realizing he was lost indicates his intent to escape. Grady maybe charged with the intent to escape as he does not obtain permission from the wardens to stray and a search has to be conducted which makes the escape a continuous process. Since the guards have to establish his physical presence, Grady then is guilty of an attempt to escape therefore the defence of drunkard ness is invalid so far as he cannot prove the alcohol disoriented his thinking. The fact that he does not return to jail after coming to indicates his intent. (Scheb et al. 2007).

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    Another side of the rapid technological development reflects the implementation of social networks. The introduction of the Internet and various programs and social networks able to unite people from the most remote corners of the world has greatly benefitted the society. The intention of the idea is amazing. The main thought was to bring people together and make them one community. However, people tend to overuse products and services. It is a fact that today there is a problem of Internet addiction. Unfortunately, people are becoming more dependent on virtual life and online communication, rather than building healthy relationships with each other in real life. Technologies tend to improve society’s development and contribute to its welfare. However, it is a sad fact that people become addicted to modern devices and social networks. As a result, they become lonely, as they forget how to build healthy relations with each other. The city of the future is most likely to experience total destruction of human contact and relationships. It may seem that the future is far away, but it comes sooner knocking at the doors as people tend to go deeper into virtual life. Society does not see the negative impact of technologies. It does not mean that it is necessary to refuse from implementation of new technologies and stop scientific research. It means that people should not forget that they are living in the world built on social relations, not technologies. People should also be aware of the future. It is necessary to take action now and take care of future generations. It is the time when it is possible for people to stop and review their attitude towards devices. Otherwise, there is a threat of losing human contact because of technology abuse.

    Fortunately, society starts worrying about the future and thinking about the welfare of future generations. There is an idea that in the future wealthy people will survive while the poor is starving and will face difficulties of survival. It is the main theme of the film Elysium, which was directed and co-produced by Neil Blomkamp. The general idea of the movie is to show separation of wealthy people from poor ones. The film displays possible future of the human civilization. It demonstrates the spectator that the future can be frightening because only wealthy people may enjoy the comfort of life. Poor people will not be able to get medical help or get the same services as wealthy people do. The film is based on inequality of wealthy and poor people. It is a warning to the contemporary society to review its principles of development and change its habits. The movie is also permeated by the idea that technology will become the main element of life. It means that people will be more severe, cruel, greedy, evil and heartless. The lack of communication and healthy relations will destroy the human nature. Consequently, people will become selfish enough to think only about their own comfort and pleasure. In the movie, Elysium is the place for wealthy people. It does not accept the impoverished and does not let them take any services. Poor people have to die because they cannot get medical advice. It is possible to compare Elysium with the contemporary society. First, it is obvious that modern development of the society is the beginning stage of Elysium. People tend to overuse products of the digital era and forget about their human nature. Annually, the number of users in social networks rises and means that people are becoming Internet users almost from their first days of life. Things in the movie are exaggerated. However, it prompts the viewer to think about the future of the world. It is a warning about possible consequences of the careless use of technologies.

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    If you had the opportunity, what actions would you demand of the United Nations Secretary General and why?

    Undoubtedly, modern conditions of the society are warning signs of the future, which has a destructive character overall civilization. If I had a chance to demand actions of the United Nations Secretary General, I would make the inequality between poor and wealthy people the basis of my speech. There is no doubt that today poor people are already feeling tension and stress because of inequality. Wealthy people tend not to care about society. They only care about their own welfare and pleasure. However, it is required to take action now in order to reduce the risk of social degradation and total destruction. First, I would provide the UN Secretary General with facts proving my worries about the future of the whole civilization. Second, I will name the causes of such a state of affairs. Third, I will give suggestions for the society’s development.

    Nowadays, poor people are already feeling the lack of opportunities in a fast-developing world. Governments should take care of these people and create appropriate conditions for the development of all society’s elements. The most effective way to ensure the welfare of all people is to create funds in every country, which will help the poor to live their life to the fullest. The main direction of the improvement is to grant opportunities to the impoverished to access education and medicine. These two sectors are the most expensive in many countries. People should not feel inequality in giving their children medical care and education. The most effective way of filling the fund with financial resources is to pass laws and acts which will bind countries to give a share of their profit to the fund. Enforcement of laws and creation of appropriate legislative basis is most likely to prompt governments and people to take action. First, the fund can spend its resources on countries of South Africa and South America. These parts of the world are mostly inhabited by poor people, who need care and attention from the society. People are forgetting about their human nature. They need to remember that poverty is an issue that can be faced by anyone. Nobody is secure from becoming poor. However, there are methods and measures which are likely to bring success to the society’s development.

    Many scientists conduct their research in the sphere of economics and laws in order to learn how to reduce poverty rate. It proves that this issue concerns many critics and scientists. Therefore, it is important to solve the problem as soon as possible. Another strategy that can be offered to the UN Secretary General is to develop a new policy of employment. For example, the easiest way to create opportunities for people is to transform the agricultural sector. Farmers form three quarters of the poor people who feel the lack of opportunities. First, it is required to increase productivity, which will lead to the growth of profits. It is already proved that chickpea varieties can help farmers to improve their welfare. At the same time, proper water management can become an effective tool for poverty reduction. It is most likely to increase profits and open the world of opportunities for the poor. Another measure that can be taken is to increase the number of working places. People should not face problems of employment. Governments should take care of people which form workforce and tend to be willing to work for their own benefit therefore the benefit of the society in general. Finally, countries should cooperate to improve development of the society at the global level.

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    Patricia Abbott, RN, Ph.D., FAMI

    Patricia became a nurse after training in the University of Maryland. She practiced nursing for a few years and then became more interested in nursing informatics. She received a master’s degree on the subject and later did a Ph.D. in information systems in 1999. She had a good reputation even before completing her Ph.D. while working as a clinical information system specialist in the University of Maryland. She worked under the faculty of nursing in the same university and later joined John Hopkins University once the director of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) and WHO (World Health Organization) facility for information systems in nursing where she currently serves. In her interviews, she says that her passion of informatics originated from her interest in computers (Saba & McCormick, 2011). Hence, learning about nursing informatics can be achieved through self-education, online or one on a single school training.

    She applied data mining techniques in nursing hence discovering existing databases in lasting care to enable people to understand the factors contributing to patient outcomes. She has committed some of her work to patient safety, ensuring that strong informatics is used in programs funded by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) therefore the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA).

    McGonigle and Mastrian (2009) argue that Dr. Abbott is an international figure of admiration due to her leadership in mentoring scholars and health workers in nursing informatics. Similarly, she is famous for her efforts in the development of the ANA (American Nurses Association) codes of practice for nursing informatics. All nurses are expected to meet all the set standards hence shaping nursing informatics ethically and professionally. She is a representative of the US in the IMIA (International Medical Informatics Association) and an active member of the JAMIA editorial board. She also has a talent in communicating disciplinary contributions to multidisciplinary organizations (Ball et al., 2011). Students taking the course now practice nursing using technology, and this has greatly improved healthcare in America. The nurses are competent and can work in various fields.

    Leadership, self-drive and time and effort are some of the important traits shown by Dr. Abbot and possessing them, people can become big achievers in nursing informatics. Similarly, her experience shows that passion is vital to become successful.

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    Dr. Betty L. Chang

    Her major contributions in informatics have majored in Nursing Education and Research. She started working in the 1980s. She designed a computer-based education program for undergraduate and graduate students practicing nursing. The research modules were then distributed even to the rural places in the US via the ANA (American Nurses Association) mechanisms. She says that her inspiration informatics was due to her passion in technology (Ball et al., 2011).

    Another contribution of hers was the instrumental development of the first computerized laboratory-based learning. She also helped pioneer a teaching program for nursing informatics in the University of California. She helped inspire scholars studying in the school of nursing and served as a committed member of the ANA Commission and power steered nursing applications (Ball & Hannah, 2011). Through such incentives, she inspires many students to pursue nursing informatics and improve healthcare. Dr. Betty continuously contributes to nursing informatics by publishing papers and acting as a leader in the American Medical Informatics Association (AMIA) programs therefore the International Medical Informatics (IMIA) programs as well as the Nursing and Consumer Health Informatics Groups.

    From her experience, it can be learned that persistence is important for one to achieve his or her fantasies. The most important skills she has shown are leadership skills and patience. They are ideal skills for success in professional nursing practice.

    In conclusion, Dr. Betty L. Chang and Dr. Patricia Abbott have made major contributions to the improvement of healthcare and production of competent nurses through nursing informatics. Their experience and continuous support provide a great potential for the growth of nursing informatics in the future.

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    The other vital concept relates to culture. According to Cascio (2012), culture refers to the characteristics of a certain group of people (p. 127). To phrase it differently, this is behavior that seems to be generally acceptable to this specific group of people. At the workplace, culture is an important factor. Apparently, one can use rules and regulations in order to determine how employees conduct themselves at the workplace. However, this is less effective than the creation of a culture. The reason is that after the implementation of rules, the manager becomes a watchdog. As a result, the employees feel that they are being watched and that there is no freedom to circumvent the rules in a positive way. Moreover, when employees operate within the acceptable culture, they act as watchdogs for each other. It means that they correct and educate each other on the do’s and don’ts at the workplace. Furthermore, it also gives them room to initiate positive changes that can be used to increase efficiency in any organization.

    The last concept concerns rewards. In fact, this is the provision of bonuses for employees that have surpasses the rest of the staff. Talking about rewards, they may be financial or non-financial. Apparently, the payment of salaries is an ideal example of a reward to employees. However, material rewards are not the main type of bonuses that the management gives to their employees as a means of encouragement. The reason is that all employees normally receive their salaries. Consequently, non-financial rewards are the major area of concern. Cascio (2012) states that these are rewards that raise self-esteem of an employee (p. 422). Thus, once an employee receives a reward as a result of exemplary work, they tend to gain more encouragement and self-belief, which increases their efficiency and effectiveness. Hereby, this is often a point that most Human Resource Managers should take into account and implement. Talking about salaries, a Human Resource Manager should insure that they are paid on time. As a result, this reduces small inconveniences in the schedules of the employees. Therefore, it increases the feeling of comfort of the employees in the organization. For this reason, salaries are also a form of reward that should not be overlooked ( , 2002).

    Learning Integration

    The above-mentioned concepts are extremely appealing to the eyes of any person. However, the mere fascination that occurs with immediate effect is not enough to initiate real implementations. For this reason, there is a need to analyze the ways in which all these concepts can be integrated in the workplace. Thus, it is obvious that the first change should take place in the mind of Human Resource Managers. The reason behind this is that the requirements imposed by the concepts contradict the approach of most Human Resource Mangers. In fact, most of these managers give much priority to the costs of these activities. As a result, this reduces their ability to encourage their employees in the ways that have been mentioned. Therefore, the integration of all these concepts should be based on the knowledge that there should be insignificant limitations as to the resources that are to be spent for the encouragement of employees. However, these resources do not only refer to money, but they should include time, attention, as well as other intangible resources.

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    The other factor in the integration of these concepts is the creation of a favorable working environment. Over the years, people have viewed the workplace as a place that unconditionally imposes automatic demands on them. Consequently, this makes the employees view the workplace as a place of bondage. With the concepts discussed above, this is often a scenario that should be avoided at the workplace. Otherwise, some of the concepts will work, while others will not. As a result, the necessary integration needed for the improvement of efficiency may be absolutely impossible. Apparently, this basically outlines the huge role that Human Resource Managers face in changing the employees’ views on the workplace. The fact is that this change should first occur in the mind of the Human Resource Manager. Afterward, he can transmit the thoughts and beliefs to the employees of that particular organization ( , 2010).

    Application to Practice

    The application of these theories at the workplace is an essential requirement for the management. The reason is that it creates and illustrates the connection between theoretical analysis therefore the actual implementation of knowledge in real life. In order to provide clear comparisons, it is crucial to analyze parts that correspond to the three concepts discussed. The first point concerns the provision of job satisfaction for the employees who serve the specific organization. The first way in which a Human Resource Manager can insure this is by employing people who have passion for the allocated job. Thus, this can be done by conducting thorough interviews and vetting during recruitment. Consequently, the company employs not only the best people for the job but those who are willing to learn and adjust their activities to changes that are bound to occur in the future. The other way in which this can be insured is by avoiding underemployment. With regards to this phenomenon, it is a situation when an employee performs the job that does not correspond to the qualifications that the employee has. Apparently, the process of appointing employees to perform a particular task shows that the organization acknowledges their level of knowledge and training. In return, their self-esteem increases, boosting their efficiency and effectiveness.

    The second point relates to the creation of a culture in an organization. In the real world, this can prove to be a hurdle for most Human Resource Managers. However, there are ways through which mangers can succeed in their business by the creation of the culture at the workplace. The first step is the initiation of the desired culture among the senior staff members. In most cases, the junior members tend to adapt to the culture that the senior members support. Apparently, this is favorable since coping with a few senior members is easier compared to handling all the employees of a certain organization. The other favorable way that can be used is education of recruits on the expectations placed on them with regards to the culture of the organization. Hereby, all new employees will develop in the desired culture of the organization, thereby bringing benefits to a Human Resource Manager.

    Rewards can be one of the most difficult tasks for Human Resource Managers. Starting with the acquisition of resources to be used in rewarding, the HR manager may face a huge task. In a working environment, the first thing would be the proposal to avail enough resources aimed at employee motivation. After achieving this, the Human Resource Manager should devise standard ways to evaluate employee performance in order to insure that they are not placed, judged and treated using different scales. Afterward, the time during which the rewards is provided should be announced to all employees.